Brazilian Peppertree Stalk Dull Weevil, Apocnemidophorus pipitzi

Brazilian Peppertree Stalk Dull Weevil, Apocnemidophorus pipitzi

During the Hawaii, where it had been put out from the 1950s, Elizabeth. unguiculus was extensively marketed into the Brazilian peppertree, nevertheless insect frequently is not good enough abundant so you can really damage the brand new bush (Yoshioka and you will , private observance). Brand new ineffectiveness of Elizabeth. unguiculus since the a physiological control broker from the Island destinations can get become owed simply so you’re able to biotic mortality facts unique to that ecosystem. Particularly, several wasps that have been delivered to your Their state for ancient physical manage of your sugar cane leafroller Hedylepta (=Omiodes) accepta (Butler) was receive fighting E. unguiculus appropriate it was create up against Brazilian peppertree (Krauss 1963).

Brand new sexes away from Good

In the event high enough physical command over Brazilian peppertree by the E. unguiculus wasn’t reached about Hawaiian archipelago, so it failure cannot preclude the development of the new insect for the Fl. Episimus unguiculus might possibly be a much better physiological handle agent of Brazilian peppertree into the Fl because was introduced to the a good brand new environment where biotic death from put and you will local parasitoids and you will predators tends to be less significant as compared to The state. Servers diversity investigations is finished, and a release petition is actually submitted to the latest Level in the (Cuda ainsi que al. 2019). But not, Tag failed to suggest job launch inside Florida by the risk of obvious battle having indigenous Episimus spp., plus the potential for the fresh new bug to help you assault expanded pistachio throughout the unlikely skills you to definitely Elizabeth. unguiculus emigrated so you can south Ca and you may Arizona. The chance so you can nontarget bugs and you can plants off E. unguiculus might be occupation tested making use of the F1 Sterile Insect Techniques (Cuda 2016). Production of F1 sterile progeny will be received by the adding the newest adult age group to reasonable dosages away from gamma radiation (Moeri ainsi que al. 2009). This will assists findings on the emergency and you may effect of the F1 larvae toward nontarget herbs around real occupation requirements with no risk of long lasting institution, as grownups produced from new F1 larvae are entirely sterile.

Surveys used recently within the northern Argentina (McKay et al. 2009), and you may southeastern Paraguay found the existence of numerous new natural foes away from Brazilian peppertree. Among these had been a few types of stalk painful weevils belonging to the fresh new genus Apocnemidophorus Hustache. Brand new weevils end up like bird droppings and you can instantly decrease brand new plants when they are interrupted. Adults off Apocnemidophorus pipitzi (Faust) was sugar daddy indeed amassed for the southeastern Paraguay and you may imported for the a florida containment lab when you look at the . Centered on Wibmer and you will O’Brien (1986), A. pipitzi was indigenous to Argentina, Brazil, and you can Uruguay. A study of weevil specimens deposited in the entomology art gallery regarding new Federal University away from Parana in Curitiba, Brazil, showed that selections out-of A. pipitzi were made in the usa regarding Parana, Santa Catarina, and you may Minas Gerais. pipitzi from inside the Paraguay are a special country listing for it kinds.

The occurrence of An effective

This new people variety in proportions from cuatro so you’re able to eight mm for the length and are usually grayish brownish into the colour, that have live specimens will searching alot more creamy than simply grayish (Figure 5). A thicker area out-of white balances is clearly visible to the sides of your pronotum that will be smaller noticable towards the underside of the abdomen. Other parts of your own looks provides but a few thrown portion having white balances. Around are several spots from black balances along side elytra, which are demonstrably noticeable less than magnification, providing the elytra (forewings) a somewhat mottled looks.

pipitzi is actually conveniently distinguishable. Considering C. W. O’Brien (personm.), you can find noticeable differences in the fresh new rostrum (snout) and you will antennal installation for the men and women regarding An excellent. pipitzi. This new people possess an equally rounded apparently evenly cylindrical rostrum which have zero difference in diameter otherwise curve at antennal insertion. Alternatively, new men provides an effective dorsal expansion within antennal installation, and also the rostrum are narrowed outside the installation, strongly angled ventrally, and you will dorsally flattened. This can be clear despite tiny specimens. Most other species of the new genus, certain comparable to look at, do not have such apparent men variations in this new rostrum.

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